Software limitations

The software is based on a semi-empirical analytical approach. The semi empirical equations are used to calculate the following:
  • Airflow loss coefficients through the different components of the tower.
  • Transfer characteristics (Merkel Numbers) in the different transfer zones and especially in the rain zone.
These semi-empirical equations are only valid for certain parameter ranges and operational conditions. The software may therefore not cater for all possible cooling tower sizes and operational conditions. The software will give an answer, but the equations will be extrapolated where the accuracy is unknown. The software will, however, warn the user if some equations are used outside the specified ranges for the design parameters. The software was specifically designed for relatively large industrial cooling towers, and should work without any problem for these towers.

Many different numerical schemes are used in the software to obtain convergence of the equations. There may be some cases where numerical instabilities may occur and the solution process will fail. There are, however, corrective measures implemented in the code that automatically prevents these instabilities. It must be stressed that these cases are very rare. A user familiar with the software can solve the numerical instabilities when they occur by changing the solution control parameters. This is similar to steps taken to ensure stable solutions in CFD software packages.
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