Favorite Cooling Tower References

Below is a list of my favorite cooling tower references:

  • Lewis, W.K., The Evaporation of a Liquid into a Gas, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 44, pp. 325-340, May, 1922.
    • Merkel, F., Verdunstungskühlung, VDI-Zeitchrift, Vol. 70, pp. 123-128, January 1925.
    • Lewis, W.K., The Evaporation of a Liquid into a Gas – A Correction, Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 55, pp. 567-573, 1933.
    • Hutchison, W.K. and Spivey, E., Design and Performance of Cooling Towers, Transactions of the Institute of Chemical Engineers, Vol. 20, pp. 14-29, 1942.
    • Zivi, S.M. and Brand, B.B., An Analysis of the Crossflow Cooling Tower, Refrigerating Engineering, Vol. 64, pp. 31-34 & 90-92, 1956.
    • McKelvey, K.K. and Brooke, M., The Industrial Cooling Tower, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1959.
    • Baker, D.R. and Shryock, H.A., A Comprehensive Approach to the Analysis of Cooling Tower Performance, Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer, pp. 339-350, 1961.
    • Berman, L.D., Evaporative Cooling of Circulating Water, 2nd Edition, Chapter 2, pp. 94-99, ed. Sawistowski, H., Translated from Russian by R. Hardbottle, Pergamon Press, New York, 1961.
    • Lowe, H.J. and Christie, D.G., Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Data on Cooling Tower Packings and Model Studies of the Resistance of Natural Draft Towers to Airflow, Proceedings of the International Heat Transfer Conference, Colorado, Part V, pp. 933-950, 1961.
    • Bosnjacovic, F., Technische Thermodinmik, Theodor Steinkopf, Dresden, 1965.
    • CTI, Cooling Tower Performance Curves, The Cooling Tower Institute, Houston, 1967.
    • Nahavandi, A. N., Kershah, R.M. and Serico, B.J., The Effect of Evaporation Losses in the Analysis of Counterflow Cooling Towers, Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 32, pp. 29-36, 1975.
    • Kelly, N.W., Kelly’s Handbook of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance, Kansas City, Missouri, Neil W. Kelly and Associates, 1976.
    • Kelly, N.W., A Blueprint for the Preparation of Crossflow Cooling Tower Characteristic Curves, Paper Presented before the Cooling Tower Institute Annual Meeting, January, 1976.
    • Montakhab, A., Waste Heat Disposal to Air with Mechanical and Draft – Some Analytical Considerations, Heat Transfer Division of the ASME, Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 1978.
    • Cale, S.A., Development of Evaporative Cooling Packing, Commission of European Communities, Report EUR 7709 EN, Luxembourg, 1982.
    • Missimer, J. and Wilber, K., Examination and Comparison of Cooling Tower Component Heat Transfer Characteristics, IAHR Cooling Tower Workshop, Hungary, October 12-15, 1982.
    • Stoecker, W.F. and Jones, J.W., Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Singapore, 1982.
    • Bourillot, C., TEFERI, Numerical Model for Calculating the Performance of an Evaporative Cooling Tower, EPRI Report CS-3212-SR, August 1983.
    • Bourillot, C., On the Hypothesis of Calculating the Water Flowrate Evaporated in a Wet Cooling Tower, EPRI Report CS-3144-SR, August 1983.
    • Majumdar, A.K., Singhal, A.K. and Spalding, D.B., Numerical Modeling of Wet Cooling Towers – Part 1: Mathematical and Physical Models, Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 105, pp. 728-735, November 1983.
    • Majumdar, A.K., Singhal, A.K., Reilly, H.E. and Bartz, J.A., Numerical Modeling of Wet Cooling Towers – Part 2: Application to Natural and Mechanical Draft Towers, Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 105, pp. 736-743, November 1983.
    • Majumdar, A.K., Singhal, A.K. and Spalding., D.B., VERA2D: Program for 2-D Analysis of Flow, Heat, and Mass Transfer in Evaporative Cooling Towers, EPRI Report CS 2923, Volume 1 and 2, March 1983.
    • Sutherland, J.W., Analysis of Mechanical-Draught Counterflow Air/Water Cooling Towers, Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 105, pp. 576-583, August 1983.
    • Poppe, M. and Rögener, H., Berechnung von Rückkühlwerken, VDI-Wärmeatlas, pp. Mh1-Mh15, 1984.
    • Li, K.W. and Priddy, A.P., Power Plant System Design, John Wiley & Sons, 1985.
    • Wilber, K.R., Yost, J.G. and Wheeler, D.E, An Examination of the Uncertainties in the Determination of Natural Draft Cooling Tower Performances, Joint AMSE/IEEE Power Generation Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, October 20-24, 1985.
    • Hoffmann, J.E., Bedryfspunt Voorspelling vir Nat Koeltorings, M.Eng Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1987.
    • British Standard 4485, Water Cooling Towers, Part 2: Methods for Performance Testing, 1988.
    • Dreyer, A.A., Analysis of Evaporative Coolers and Condensers, M.Eng Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1988.
    • Jaber, H. and Webb, R.L., Design of Cooling Towers by the Effectiveness-NTU Method, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 111, pp. 837-843, November 1989.
    • Johnson, B.M. (ed.), Cooling Tower Performance Prediction and Improvement, Volume 1, Applications Guide, EPRI Report GS-6370, Volume 2, Knowledge Base, EPRI Report GS-6370, EPRI, Palo Alto, 1989.
    • Cooling Tower Institute, CTI Code Tower, Standard Specifications, Acceptance Test Code for Water-Cooling Towers, Part I, Part II and Part III, CTI Code ATC-105, Revised, February 1990.
    • Surridge, A.D., Swanepoel, D.J.deV., Held, G., Research on Thermal Feedback Caused by Dry-Cooling Power Generating Stations, Confidential Report, EMA-C 9086, CSIR, Pretoria, 1990.
    • Feltzin, A.E. and Benton D., A More Exact Representation of Cooling Tower Theory, Cooling Tower Institute Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 8-26, 1991.
    • Osterle, F., On the Analysis of Counter-Flow Cooling Towers, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 34, No. 4/5, pp. 1313-1316, 1991.
    • Poppe, M. and Rögener, H., Berechnung von Rückkühlwerken, VDI-Wärmeatlas, pp. Mi 1-Mi 15, 1991.
    • Hensley, J., Maximize Tower Power, Chemical Engineering, pp. 74-82, February, 1992.
    • Willa, J.L., Evolution of the Cooling Tower, CTI Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 40-49, 1992.
    • Becker, B.R. and Burdick, L.F., Drift Eliminators and Cooling Tower Performance, ASHRAE Journal, pp. 28-36, June 1993.
    • Kranc, SC, Performance of Counterflow Cooling Towers with Structured Packings and Maldistributed Water Flow, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, Vol. 23, pp. 115-127, 1993.
    • Mirsky, G.R. and Bauthier, J., Evolution of Cooling Tower Fill, CTI Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 12-19, 1993.
    • Du Preez, A.F. and Kröger, D.G., The Influence of a Buoyant Plume on the Performance of a Natural Draft Cooling Tower, 9th IAHR Cooling Tower and Spraying Pond Symposium, Brussels, 1994.
    • Grange, J.L., Calculating the Evaporated Water Flow in a Wet Cooling Tower, Paper presented at the 9th IAHR Cooling Tower and Spraying Pond Symposium, von Karman Institute, Brussels, Belgium, September 1994.
    • Bernier, M.A., Thermal Performance of Cooling Towers, ASHRAE Journal, pp. 56-61, April 1995.
    • Bland, C., A Cool Solution to a Hot Problem, Process Engineering, pp. 33, June, 1995.
    • Conradie, A.E., Performance Optimization of Engineering Systems with Particular Reference to Dry-Cooled Power Plants, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1995.
    • Ibrahim, G.A., Nabhan, M.B.W. and Anabtawi M.Z., An Investigation into a Falling Film Type Cooling Tower, International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 18, No. 8, pp. 557-564, 1995.
    • Kintner-Meyer, M. and Emery, A.F., Cost-Optimal Design for Cooling Towers, ASHRAE Journal, pp. 46-55, April 1995.
    • Mills, A.F., Basic Heat and Mass Transfer, Irwin, Chicago, 1995.
    • Liffick, G.W. and Cooper, Jr, J.W., Thermal Performance Upgrade of the Arkansas Nuclear One Cooling Tower: A “Root Cause” Analysis Approach, Proceedings of the American Power Conference, Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 1357-1362, 1995.
    • Oosthuizen, P.C., Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Cooling Towers, M.Eng. Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1995.
    • Sadasivam, M. and Balakrishnan, A.R., On the Effective Driving Force for Transport in Cooling Towers, Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 117, pp. 512-515, May 1995.
    • Mohiuddin, A.K.M. and Kant, K., Knowledge Base for the Systematic Design of Wet Cooling Towers. Part I: Selection and Tower Characteristics, International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 43-51, 1996.
    • Mohiuddin, A.K.M. and Kant, K., Knowledge Base for the Systematic Design of Wet Cooling Towers. Part II: Fill and other Design Parameters, International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 52-60, 1996.
    • Bowman, C.F. and Benton, D.J., Oriented Spray-Assisted Cooling Tower, CTI Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1997.
    • Cooling Tower Institute, CTI Code Tower, Standard Specifications, Acceptance Test Code for Water-Cooling Towers, Vol. 1, CTI Code ATC-105(97), Revised, February 1997.
    • De Villiers, E. and Kröger, D.G., Analysis of Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer in the Rain Zone of Counterflow Cooling Towers, Proceedings of the 1997 IJPGC, Vol.2, PWR-Vol. 32, pp. 141-149, Denver, November 1997.
    • El-Dessouky, H.T.A., Al-Haddad, A. and Al-Juwayhel, F., A Modified Analysis of Counter Flow Wet Cooling Towers, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 119, No. 3, pp. 617-626, 1997.
    • Hoffmann, J.E., The Influence of Temperature Stratification in the Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer on the Operating Point of a Natural Draft Dry-Cooling Tower, Ph.D Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1997.
    • Huser, A., Nilsen, P.J. and Skatun, H., Application of k-ε Model to the Stable ABL: Pollution in Complex Terrain, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 67 and 68, pp. 425-436, 1997.
    • Al-Nimr, M.A., Dynamic Thermal Behaviour of Cooling Towers, Energy Conversion Management, Vol. 39. No. 7, pp. 631-636, 1998.
    • Baard, T.W., Performance Characteristics of Expanded Metal Cooling Tower Fill, M.Eng Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1998.
    • Conradie, A.E., Buys, J.D. and Kroger, D.G., Performance Optimization of Dry-Cooling Systems for Power Plants through SQP Methods, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 18, Nos. 1-2, pp. 25-40, 1998.
    • Kröger, D.G., Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers and Cooling Towers Thermal-Flow Performance, Evaluation and Design, Begell House, Inc., New York, 1998.
    • Streng, A., Combined Wet/Dry Cooling Towers of Cell-Type Construction, Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 3, pp. 104-121, December 1998.
    • De Villiers, E. and Kröger, D.G., Inlet Losses in Counterflow Wet-Cooling Towers, Joint Power Generation Conference, Vol.2, PWR-Vol. 34, ASME, 1999.
    • Häszler, R., Einflusz von Kondensation in der Grenzschicht auf die Wärme- und Stoffübertragung an einem Rieselfilm, Fortschritt-Berichte VDI, Reihe 3, Nr. 615, 1999.
    • Söylemez, M.S., Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Cooling Towers, ASHRAE Transactions: Research, Vol. 105, No. 1, pp. 330-337, 1999.
    • Wallis, J.S. and Aull, R.J., Improving Cooling Tower Performance, Hydrocarbon Engineering, pp. 92-95, May, 1999.
    • Aull, R.J., and Krell, T., Design Features of Cross-Fluted Film Fill and Their Effect on Thermal Performance, CTI Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 12-33, 2000.
    • Castro, M.M., Song, T.W. and Pinto, J.M., Minimization of Operational Costs in Cooling Water Systems, Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, Vol. 78, Part A, pp. 192-201, March, 2000.
    • Goshayshi, H.R. and Missenden, J.F., The Investigation of Cooling Tower Packing in Various Arrangements, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 20, pp. 69-80, 2000.
    • Goyal, O.P., Maintenance and Retrofitting, Guidelines and Troubleshooting, Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 79, No. 1, p. 69, 2000.
    • Makkinejad, N., Temperature Profile in Countercurrent/Cocurrent Spray Towers, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 44, pp. 429-442, 2001.
    • Milosavljevic, N. and Heikkilä, P., A Comprehensive Approach to Cooling Tower Design, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 21, pp. 899-915, 2001.
    • Roth, M., Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer in Wet Cooling Towers. All Well Known or are Further Developments Necessary? 12th IAHR Symposium in Cooling Towers and Heat Exchangers, UTS, Sydney, Australia, pp. 100-107, November, 2001.
    • Turpin, J.R. (ed.), Want to Save Energy? Look at your Cooling Tower, Engineered Systems, Vol. 18, No. 10, p. 48, 2001.
    • Busch, D., Harte, R., Krätzig, W.B. and Montag, U., New Natural Draft Cooling Tower of 200 m of Height, Engineering Structures, Vol. 24, pp. 1509-1521, 2002.
    • Fisenko, S.P., Petruchik, A.I. and Solodukhin, A.D., Evaporative Cooling of Water in a Natural Draft Cooling Tower, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 45, pp. 4683-4694, 2002.
    • Harte, R. and Krätzig, W.B., Large-Scale Cooling Towers as Part of an Efficient and Cleaner Energy Generating Technology, Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 40, pp. 651-664, 2002.
    • Hawlader, M.N.A. and Lui, B.M., Numerical Study of the Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Evaporative Natural Draft Cooling Towers, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 22, pp. 41-59, 2002.
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